Developmental Milestones

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There is an unlimited choice of developmental milestones.

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See also Neonatal Reflexes


Contents


Gross Motor

  • Newborn
    • symmetrical flexion
  • 6-8 weeks: developing head control
  • 3 months: good head control
  • 6-8 months: sitting
    • 6m: sits with curved back, supported
    • 8m: sits with rounded back, unsupported
      • develops 'forward parachute' response reflex
  • 8-9 months: crawling
  • 9 months: stands holding on
  • 11-12 months: walks with hands held
  • 13 months: walks unsupported; unsteady
  • 15 months: walks unsupported; steady
  • 18 months: 97.5 % walking
    • Walks carrying a toy
    • Running; bent over.
    • Climbs onto a chair
    • throws ball overhand
  • 2 years
    • kicks a ball
    • Squats and stands
    • Jumps up
    • Stands tip-toe
    • Stairs: with help / rail, 2 feet per step
  • 3 years
    • Runs fast
    • Stands on 1 leg (1 second)
    • Walks on tip-toes
    • Stairs: 1 foot per step up, 2 feet per step going down
    • Uses a tricycle
  • 4 years
    • Stands on 1 leg (3-5 seconds)
    • Hops
    • Climbs a ladder
    • Runs to kick a ball
    • 'Adult' pattern use of stairs
  • 5 years
    • Bounces and catches a ball
    • skips
    • stand on one leg for 20 seconds

Fine Motor and Vision - Infant

  • Newborn: preference for faces in midline and patterned objects
  • 6 weeks: fixes and follows near midline
  • 3 months: fixes and follows beyond midline
  • 4 months
    • Follows objects 180 degrees
  • 5 months
    • reaches for objects
    • brings to midline
  • 6 months
    • transfers objects between hands
    • palmar grasp
    • mouthing
  • 9-11 months: pincer grip; immature
    • looks for toy fallen from view
    • pokes objects with index finger
  • 12 months
    • maturing pincer grip
    • Pointing
    • banging bricks together
  • 13 months: can give a toy on request (able to control release of an object from hand)

Fine Motor and Vision - Toddler

  • Handedness: >1yr and <2yrs [Pathological <1yr age]
  • Puzzles
    • <2 years: trial and error matching
    • >2 years: visual scanning (shape matching)


Tower of bricks

  • 2 = 15 months
  • 3 = 18 months
  • 6 = 2 years
  • 8 = 2.5 years
  • Train of 4 = 3 years
  • Bridge = 3.5 years
  • Steps with 6 bricks = 4 years
  • Steps with 10 bricks = 5 years


Drawing skills

Copying is achieved 6 months earlier for each milestone.

  • 15m - Marks on paper
  • 18m - Straight scribble
  • 2 yr - circular scribble
  • 2.5 yrs - copies line(vertical followed by horizonatal)
  • 3 yrs - copies circle
  • 3.5 yrs - copies cross
  • 4 yrs - copies square and a plus sign
  • 5 yrs - copies triangle

Speech and Language

  • Newborn: startles to sound
  • 3 months: vocalises
  • 6-7 months: turns to soft sounds (requires head control)
  • 10 months: makes sounds to parents
  • recognises his/her own name
    • understands no
    • bisyllabic babbling
  • 12 months: 2-3 single words with meaning
  • recognition of objects
    • waves bye bye
  • 18 months
    • points to parts of body(3-4)
    • knowns common objects by name
    • follows single step command
    • 2-10 words
  • 20-24 months: simple phrases
    • follows two step requests
  • 3 years: 3-4 word sentences
    • knows some colours
    • name, age and sex on request
    • starts to tell stories
  • 4 years
    • count to ten
    • identifies several colours
    • 100s of questions
    • prepositions
  • 5 years
    • home address
    • complex negatives
    • opposites

Social and Emotional

  • 6 weeks: smiles
  • 8 months: puts food in mouth
  • 10 months
    • waves goodbye
    • plays peek-a-boo
  • 12 months: drinks from a cup
  • 18 months:
    • uses a spoon
    • symbolic play
  • 2 years: dry by day
  • 3 years
    • Socially interactive
    • Takes turns at play
    • eats with knife and fork

Red Flag Milestones

Investigation is prompted if children fail to child a milestone by the red flag age.

  • No smile: 8 weeks
  • Poor eye contact: 3 months
  • No reaching: 5 months
  • Not sitting: 9 months
  • Not walking: 18 months
  • No single words with meaning: 18 months
  • No 2-3 word sentences: 30 months.


See also Neonatal Reflexes

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